To prove the FLT, Prof Andrews Wiles used all the math tools developed from the past centuries till today. One of the key tool is the Galois Group, invented by a 19-year-old French boy in 19th century, Evariste Galois. His story is a tragedy – thanks to the 2 ‘incompetent’ examiners of the Ecole Polytechnique (a.k.a. “X”), the Math genius failed in the Concours (Entrance Exams) not only once, but twice in consecutive years.
Rejected by universities and the ugly French politics and academic world, Galois suffered set back one after another, finally ended his life in a ‘meaningless’ duel at 20.
He wrote down his Math findings the eve before he died – “Je n’ai pas le temps” (I have no more time) – begged his friend to send them to two foreigners (Gauss and Jacobi) for review of its importance. “Group Theory” was born in such tragic circumstances, recognized to the world only 14 years after his death.
Video in French and English:
Coursera: Ecole Normale Supérieure – “Introduction à La Théorie de Galois”