Singapore Math’s “CPA” Pedagogy Leads to World’s PISA Top # 1 Rank


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CPA = Concrete – Picture – Abstract

Singapore Math = Chinese Math + English (UK/USA) Math

Chinese Math = Spoon-feeding 填鸭式|Computational focus | Applied |Memorization

English Math = Building-block 建构式|Practical focus |Less Theoretical


Singapore Math inherits both the strengths as well as the weaknesses of Chinese Math & English Math:

Strengths: Applied, Practical, Building-block. (Up to secondary school math level, good for daily math usage).

Weaknesses : Computational focus, Less Theoretical. (Bad for abstract thinking in further study of advanced math).

Singapore Math is only good for kids from 7 to 15 years old (PISA age is 15). From upper secondary Math (at 16) to A-level or Baccalaureat(at 18) or 中国高一~高三, the French Math is better for laying foundation in abstract thinking, paving the way for advanced math in university & beyond – evidenced by the majority of Fields Medalists are French. (Read “How do the French Excel in Math” )


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