First Quantum Call between China and Vienna

https://www.oeaw.ac.at/en/austrian-academy-of-sciences/the-oeaw/article/erstes-abhoersicheres-quanten-videotelefonat-zwischen-wien-und-peking-geglueckt-1/?tx_news_pi1%5Bcontroller%5D=News&tx_news_pi1%5Baction%5D=detail&cHash=1e80a2c4867594ade3cb215cb325edd2

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Symmetry, Algebra and the “Monster”

Very good introduction of Modern Math concept “Group” to secondary school math students by an American high school teacher.

https://www.quantamagazine.org/symmetry-algebra-and-the-monster-20170817/

Summary:

  • Symmetry of a Square
  • Isometry (*) or Rigid Motion (刚体运动) = no change in shape and size after a transformation
  • What is a Group (群 “CAN I” ) ? = Closure Associative Neutral Inverse
  • Monster Group = God ?
  • String Theory: Higgs boson (玻色子) aka “God Particles”

Note (*): “保距映射” (Isometry),是指在度量空间 (metric space) 之中保持距离不变的”同构“关系 (Isomorphism) 。几何学中的对应概念是 “全等变换”

Prof ST Yau’s 丘成桐 Talk to Chinese Youth on Math Education 


Prof ST Yau 丘成桐 , Chinese/HK Harvard Math Dean, is the only 2 Mathematicians in history (the other person is Prof Pierre Deligne of Belgium) who won ALL 3 top math prizes: Fields Medal 1982 (at 27, proving Calabi Conjecture), Crafoord Prize (1994) , Wolf Prize (2010).

Key Takeaways :

1. On Math Education
◇ Compulsary Math training for reasoning skill applicable in Economy, Law, Medicine, etc.
◇ Study Math Tip: read the new topic notes 1 day before the lecture, then after lecture do the problems to enhance understanding.
◇ Read Math topics even though you do not understand in first round, re-read few more times,  then few days / months / years / decades later you will digest them. (做学问的程序).
◇ Do not consult students in WHAT to teach, because they don’t know what to learn.
◇ Love of Math beauty is the “pull-factor” for motivating  students’ interest in Math.
◇ Parental Pressure.

2. “3D” facial photo using Math

3. Pi-Music: 1 = “do”, 2 = “re”, 3 =”me”…
Pi =3.1415926…

4. Math Olympiad: Prof ST Yau had criticised publicly it as a bad Math training, not the “real” Math. 

An audience tested Prof ST Yau on a Math (Accounting) Puzzle which he couldn’t  solve on the spot. He said Mathematicians are poor in +-×÷ arithmetic. 

5. Chinese students in USA: China sends over 200,000 students to USA universities. They are good in secondary / high school Math with known solutions,  but poor in graduate PhD Math which requires “out-of-the-box” independent thinking skill for finding unknown solutions. Recent few years Chinese students (eg. Stanford Prof 李骏 : 1989 Harvard PhD)  in USA have improved standard in PhD research.

6. Research is not for fame. It takes many years to think through an interesting topic.

Reference:

1. Prof ST Yau’s Best Seller Book 《The Shape of Inner Space》avail @ NLB (Ref #530.1) 11 copies in most NLB branches@ AMK, Bishan etc.

2. Interview Prof ST Yau by HK TV (Cantonese)

3. 丘成桐 (2008) 评中国 和 美 国的教育 : 中国学生不爱看课外书, 因为考试太重, 课余时间花在玩电脑游戏。

4.  丘成桐 (2016): 中国大学本科要注重基础教育, 才能培养世界级一流人才

Curious Thoughts in Math & Science 

1. Statistical Mechanics: e^ {- Ht}

Quantum Mechanics: e^{iHt}

2. Ramanujian:

1 +2 + 3 + …+ n = –  1/12

Note: this formula is used in Quantum Physics dealing with infinity n (although it cancels out each other in subsequent calculations)

Tau Special Function:

\boxed {\displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\tau (n) x^{n} = x \{(1-x)(1-x^{2})(1-x^{3})... \}^{24}}

3. Boolean Algebra: George Boole (1847 in 《The Mathematical Analysis of Logic》) used Symbolic variables (not numbers) for Logic, inspired by Galois (1832 in Groups & Finite Fields), Hamilton’s quaternion algebra (1843).

AND\boxed {x.y} 

NOT\boxed {1-x} 

XOR\boxed {x+y-2x.y} 

Extra constraints ”  \boxed {x^{2}=x} 

 4. Solomon Golomb, Sol: “Linear Feedback Shift Register” (LFSR)  — shift left the first register, fill in the back register with XOR of certain “Taps” (eg.chosen the 1st, 6th, 7th registers)

Maximal Length = The shift register of size n will repeat every 2^{n}-1 steps (exclude all ‘0’ sequence).

Which arrangement of “Taps” will produce the maximal length ? 

Solomon applied Pure Math : represent the above sequence of  registers algebraically  by: 

\boxed {x^{7}+x^{6}+ 1} 

in reducible modulo 2 (prime in polynomial, ie can’t be factored).

=> the sequence is Maximal length

LFSR Applications: Telecommunications, 3G/4G/5G, CDMA, Wifi, computers, network, signal transmission error-correction CD/DVD, Astrology : Venus-Earth distance,  etc.