Which Countries Produce Best Programmers


The result is surprising … China, Russia, Poland are the top 3 countries based on the tests, not the usual expected countries such as USA, India, UK.

Reason: Mathematics ! China, Russia and Poland are strong in Advanced Math education in university. Functional Programming requires the Advanced Math eg. Category Theory.


Kotlin: Co-Variance, Contra-Variance, Invariance, Immutability

Kotlin is a functional programming (FP) language which has the Category concept of co-Variance, contra-Variance. Java is object-oriented not FP, it has only Invariance.



Covariance and contravariance are terms that refer to the ability to use a less derived (less specific = CoVariance eg. Apple instead of Fruit) or more derived type (more specific = ContraVariance, eg. Gala instead of Apple) than originally specified.

Generic type parameters support covariance and contravariance to provide greater flexibility in assigning and using generic types.

  • Invariance

    Means that you can use only the type originally specified; so an invariant generic type parameter is neither covariant nor contravariant. (Java is always invariance.)

No homework, full-day school curriculum to help level playing field (Proposal, not implemented yet)

Singapore Maths Tuition

Full-day school is quite a drastic measure to combat tuition. Also, unless full-day means 7am to 7pm, it is unlikely to be different from the status quo.

Any parent with children in secondary school or JC is aware that school is already pretty much “full-day” as of today, from 7am to 5pm at the minimum on most days (including CCA). Hence, there is not much room to get more “full-day” than now. JC students are known to stay much later for CCA, probably some are already having schedules from 7am to 7pm, which more than qualifies as “full-day”.

Also, even if full-day school (say 7am to 7pm) is implemented, there seems nothing to stop students from having tuition during the weekends, or on weekdays 8pm-10pm.

Probably most students would not be too pleased at having a full-day school. If I were still a student, I would definitely be more stressed…

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