# Prime Gap : Oxford James Maynard

Oxford post-doc proved the Prime Gap (= 600) six months after 张益唐 had proved with70 million gap (which was further improved by Terence Tao’s PolyMath Project team to ~260) .

Till today nobody has proved the gap = 2 (Twin Prime).

https://www.quantamagazine.org/james-maynard-solves-the-hardest-easy-math-problems-20200701/

# Twin Prime Gap : Zhang YiTang

Twin prime gap we know should be 2 in the infinity, so far Zhang proved the gap is bounded by 70,000,000 further reducing to 246… How to get to “2“ is a challenge which may take another 50 years.

2014 Lecture:

# 张益唐 天才的野心： 《朗道-西格尔零点》猜想

Dr. Zhang YiTang (1955 -) the “Subway Sandwich” mathematician who, before 50 was still a temporary hourly worker… until 2013 at 58 proved the “70-million Twin Prime Gap“.

He becomes overnight famous worldwide, now a tenure professor.

His next ambition is the “Landau-Siegel Zero Conjecture”, a weaker form of the Millenium Problem “Riemann Conjecture”.

# Landau–Siegel zeros and zeros of the derivative of the Riemann zeta function

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001870812001600     (想看更多合你口味的内容，马上下载 今日头条)

# 70-million Bounded Gap Between Primes Since Ancient Greek :

1. Euclid had proved there are infinite primes.
2. Sieve of Eratosthenes to enumerate the primes.
3. Recent time 3 Mathematicians GPY attempted another Sieve method to find the bounded gap (N) of primes in infinity, but stuck at one critical step.
4. Dr. YiTang Zhang 张益唐 (1955 -) spent 7 years in solitude after failure in academic career, in 2013 during a 10-min walk at the deer backyard of his friend’s house, he found an Eureka solution for the GPY’s critical step: $\boxed { \epsilon = \frac {1} {168}}$ which gave the first historical bounded Gap (N) from an infinity large number to a limit of 70 million.

Notes:

• Chinese love the number “8” \ba which sounds like the word prosperity 发 \fa (in Cantonese) . He could have instead used 160, so long as $\epsilon$ is small.
• The Ultimate Goal of the Bounded Gap (N) is 2 (Twin Primes Conjecture) .
• The latest bounded gap (N) is reduced from 70-million to 246 from The PolyMath Project led by Terence Tao using Zhang’s method by adjusting the various values of $\epsilon$ (analogous to choosing different sizes of the holes or ‘eyes’ of the Prime Sieve.)

A Graduate Level Talk by Dr. Zhang:

A Simpler Overview:

# 不向命运低头的数学家: 张益唐

1. 文化大革命: 父母下乡劳改

2. 中学辍学, 自修数学 《十万个为什么》

3. 留美大学的博士导师为难

4. 博士毕业就失业7年, 当Subway 快餐职员, 学非所用, 身无分文, 家无定所。

# 张益唐：我的数学人生

[录音小声, 请用earphone耳机听更清楚。]

Key Points Take Away:

1. 身处逆境, 不是勇气, 是淡定。

2. 对目的要穷追不捨, 不要放弃。他从北大的Analytic Number Theory (解析数论)兴趣, 被”人为”的转道去搞博士论文Algebraic Geometry, 7年毕业却无业。从新回到” 解析数论”的跑道, 才得到大成就。

3. 如果2个不同领域的学问之间有些联系, 只要往里鑽, 必能发现新东西。

4. 人生低谷, 碰到3个贵人(2位北大校友, 一位美国系主任青睐)协助。

5. 太太不知他干何学问, 不给 他家庭经济压力, 才能安心于数学。

Q&A:
1. 对于天才儿童, 他劝家长不要 “压 “也不要”捧”, 只要多鼓励, 像Perleman 的(俄国数学家, 证明100年的Poincaré Conjecture)父母循循教导儿子

2. 希望能收PhD学生, 会对他们负责任, 不要有像他个人的悲剧发生 (指被教授利用做私人的项目, 误了学生的前途)。他手头有半’成品’和 3/4’成品’, 可让学生拿去参考, 继续完成当论文。

【台湾壹週刊】

# Our Daily Story #6: A Subway Sandwich Mathematician Zhang Yitang 张益唐

Zhang is the typical demonstration of pure perseverance of traditional Chinese mathematicians: knock harder and harder until the truth is finally cracked.

His work is based on the prior half-way proof by 3 other mathematicians “GPY”:

Gap between Primes:

Let p1 and p2 be two adjacent primes separated by gaps of 2N:

p1 – p2 = 2 (twin primes)
eg. (3, 5), (5, 7)… (11, 13) and the highest twin primes found so far (the pair below: +1 and -1) p1 – p2 = 4 (cousin primes)
eg. (7, 11)

p1 – p2 = 6 (sexy primes)
eg. (23, 29)

p1 – p2 = 2N

Euclid proved 2,500 years ago there are infinite many primes, but until today nobody knows are these primes bounded by a gap (2N) ?

Zhang, while working as a sandwich delivery man in a Subway shop, kept trying alone for 7 years with the GPY method, finally in 2013 he found the bounded gap: $\boxed {2N < 70,000,000,000}$

Recent mathematicians (Terrence Tao’s Polymath Project and others) follow his technique to narrow 2N down from 70 million to, hopefully, 16.

At age above 50, Zhang (1955 -) has shown that Mathematics is not limited to only young minds – as GH Hardy had set 35 the age limit for any great math achievements.

http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yitang_Zhang

Part 1:

Part 2:

Ref:

3. Euclid’s Proof of Infinite Primes: