“A pure mathematician, when stuck on the problem under study, often decides to narrow the problem further and so avoid the obstruction. An applied mathematician interprets being stuck as an indication that it is time to learn more mathematics and find better tools”
— Distinguished differential geometer Eugenio Calabi
The young Russian doctor Sergei Arutyunyan was working with patients whose immune systems were rejecting transplanted kidneys.
The doctor has to decide whether to keep or remove it. If they kept the kidney, the patient could die, but if they remove it, the patient would need another long wait (or never) for another kidney.
The mathematician Edward Frankel helped him to analyze the collected data with ‘expert rules’ in a decision tree. (Note: this is like the Artificial Intelligence Rule-based Expert System, except no fuzzy math).
The successful diagnosis (with Math): 95%