Machine Learning is Fun! – Adam Geitgey – Medium

(中文) :

Unsupervised learning is the future ML (Machine Learning) – of which AI is a branch – with the latest algorithm Deeplearning showing only 5% of its potential (more yet to be invented).

Singapore has recently launched an AI program to educate 10,000 students & workers. (Partnership with Microsoft and IBM, a 3-hour free lesson).

The world’s 4 AI gurus :

  1. (UK/Canada) Prof Geoffrey Hinton (*) , the inventor of DeepLearning, and
  2. his post-doctorate associate (France) Prof Yann Lecun ,
  3. The ex-Google & ex-Baidu AI Chief Prof Andrew NG 吴恩达,
  4. The AlphaGo creator Demis Hassabis

Andrew and Demis both studied in Singapore secondary schools (NG in Raffles Institution) before pursuing university in Stanford and Cambridge, respectively.

Note (*) : Prof Geoffrey Hinton was involved in the 80s Expert Systems where rule-based knowledge engine was the AI (2.0) . This AI failed because of fixed rules knowledge base under “supervised learning” from human domain experts, who each differed from another in opinions, to give an un-biased “weights” (rule probabilities from 0 to 1). Prof Hinton continued the AI research by moving from UK to Canada, where he developed the Deeplearning algorithm with unsupervised learning from Big Data Training feed to calculate the “Costs” (ie deviations of AI result versus actual result, using Cauchy’s Calculus eg. “Gradient Descent”, etc).

AI – DeepLearning – Machine Learning

3 Waves of AI Evolution:

1st Wave (1950s) : Alan Turing “The Father of AI” and his Princeton Prof Alonzo Church (Lambda Calculus). MIT Prof Malvin Minksy’s “Lisp” Functional Programming (a.k.a. Symbolic or Declarative) Language.

2nd Wave (1980s – 1990s) : Knowledge-Based Rule Engine Expert Systems.
Failed because knowledge acquisition process is too difficult with limited rigid rules.

3rd Wave (2010s -): DeepLearning is the latest AI tool for Machine Learning, famous after 2016 “AlphaGo” game by a former Funan-center UK Kid Demis Hassabis (UK/Greek father & Singapore Chinese mom teacher) beat 2 “Go” World Champions (Korean Lee Sedol 李世乭 and China 柯洁).

Great Books Recommended

1. Learn Everything in 《Deep Learning》:

  • Math (eg. Gradient Descent – by French GrandMaster Cauchy 1847),
  • Linear Algebra (eg. Matrix, Eigen-decomposition),
  • Probability (eg. Bayesian, etc),
  • Key Deep Learning techniques.

Note: Available at Singapore National Library (LKC Reference #006.31).

Order at Amazon:

2. 《The Master Algorithm》 (Book or Audio),1

5 “Tribes” of Machine Learning, all with 3 layers (Representation, Evaluation/Scoring, Optimisation) :

  1. Connectionists (“Deep Learning”, Neural Network)
  2. Bayesians (Probability, Inference Rule)
  3. Analogizers (Similar Pattern)
  4. Symbolists (Logic)
  5. Evolutionaries (Survival the fittest )


1. Bill Gates recommends this excellent book for 2018 reading, also found it on Chinese President’s Xi JingPing’s Office Bookshelf in 1 Jan 2018 New Year Speech.

2. All available copies of this book in the Singapore National Library Board have been loaned out !! (Unusual in low-readership Singapore). Please reserve it via online queue.

3. Audio version (10 CDs) is excellent for in-car listening while driving, or travelling on plane/train/bus for busy persons.