Fields Medals 2018

Picture Order (From Left) :1. 2. 3. 4.

1. Caucher Birkar (UK / Kurdish – Iran, 40)

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-45032422

2. Alessio Figalli (Italy, 34)
https://www.quantamagazine.org/alessio-figalli-a-mathematician-on-the-move-wins-fields-medal-20180801/

3. Akshay Venkatesh (Australia / India, 36)

Studies number theory and representation theory.

https://www.quantamagazine.org/fields-medalist-akshay-venkatesh-bridges-math-and-time-20180801/

4. Peter Scholze (Germany, 30)
Intersection between number theory and geometry

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Seven Fields Medalists

The 7 Fields Medalists are:


2014 – Maryam Mirzakhani (1977-2017) – 1st lady Fields medalist

2010 – Cédric Villani (1973- )

2006 – Grigori Perelman (1966- ) – 1st declined the award

1998 – Andrew Wiles (1953- ) [silver plaque] – Fermat’s Last Theorem

1990 – Edward Witten (1951- ) – Physicist won Fields medal

1982 – Alain Connes (1947- ) – Quantum Theory

1966 – Alexander Grothendieck (1928-2014) – Hermit mathematician

https://www.newscientist.com/article/2166283-7-mathematicians-you-should-have-heard-of-but-probably-havent/

New “Nobel” Prizes

Recent years, there are more newly created “Nobel” Prizes with much bigger prize amounts than the Nobel prize:

BREAKTHROUGH PRIZE IN LIFE SCIENCE (2013)
Donated by:
Yuri Milner (Russian Internet Billionaire)
Mark Zuckerberg (Facebook Founder)
Sergey Brin (Google co-founder)
US$ 3 million
Award Frequency: Every year
Status: 9 scientists had been awarded


FUNDAMENTAL PHYSCIS PRIZE (2012)

Donated by Yuri Milner
US$ 3 million

TANG PRIZE 唐奨 (2013)
Donated by Samual Yin 尹衍梁 (Taiwan Property Tycoon) for Asian countries.
US$ 1.675 million
Frequency: Every 2 years

QUEEN ELIZABETH ENGINEERING PRIZE (2013)
US$ 1.5 million

NOBEL PRIZE (1901)
US$ 1.2 million

SHAW PRIZE 邵逸夫奨 (2004)
Donated by Run Run Shaw (Hong Kong Movie Producer Billionaire)
US$ 1 million

LASKER AWARD (1946)
US$ 250,000

BLAVATNIK YOUNG SCIENTIST AWARD (2013)
Donated by Len Blavatnik (Billionaire Investor)
US$ 250,000

FIELDS MEDAL (1936)
US$ 14,700

Pawned Fields Medal

1936 Lars Valerian Ahlfors (Harvard University)

The first person in history to receive a Fields medal was a Finnish Ahlfors in 1936. At that time Finland was at war with England, no person could bring  more than 10 crowns out of Finland. Ahlfors was accepting a job offer from Harvard, so he pawned his Fields Medal for ticket to leave Finland, later got the medal back from the pawn shop.

Lars Valerian Ahlfors

Lars Valerian Ahlfors (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Why French excel in math ?

Mathematics and quantitative finance, France

Since 1990, there have been 22 winners of the Fields Medal, widely regarded as the Nobel Prize of mathematics. Thirteen came from just two countries, Russia and France. Russia has more winners (seven), but more than twice the population, so the honours go to France, with six winners.

Cédric Villani, the 2010 Fields Medallist, cited national character. “Maths is an abstract way of looking at the world, which fits well with the French mentality. We apply algebra to everything.” Elite institutions help too. France’s brightest school leavers progress to the grandes écoles, which traditionally educate top scientists, administrators and presidents. For maths, you want Monsieur Villani’s alma mater, the École Normale Supérieure (ENS). All 10 French Fields Medallists learnt there. At ENS, no teacher can stay longer than 10 years. Instead of ancient dons, students get tutors at the forefront of mathematics. Many try, but only 40 mathematicians a year enter the ENS.

The French have applied their maths genius to the money markets too. The Financial Times business schools rankings suggest France leads the world in producing “financial engineering” experts, with six institutions in the top 10 masters courses in finance. France can thus claim to dominate quantitative finance, the highly mathematical specialism involved in about half of all financial trades.

They should thank Michel Crouhy. In 1986, at the École des Hautes Études Commerciales (EHESS) in Paris, he devised the world’s first masters course in financial engineering. “The business school students didn’t have good enough maths, so I said ‘Let’s take only maths graduates, engineers. I won’t have to spend forever explaining the equations.’ It worked; the EHESS still offers the world’s best finance masters course, according to the Financial Times.

“Americans told me they wanted to start a course like ours but they weren’t allowed,” says Crouhy. “Because US MBA programmes were so strong, the universities worried a finance masters would compete with their MBA and destroy the MBA’s franchise.” America’s hesitation seems to have cost them.