1) From 1950 an unknown PhD Math Thesis by French Dr. Bachelier (a PhD student of the 20CE last Polymath Henri Poincaré, who was not impressed with the ‘gambling’ math, gave only an above-average marks to the thesis) – invention of “Options” Trading to eliminate risk in stock fluctuations.
2) The technique is called “Dynamic Hedging”…
3) …by applying the Japanese mathematician “Ito Math”.
5). Sholes & Merton Company “LTCM” – making tons of money until… 1997 Asian Crisis, bailed out by USA government after loss of billions !