Transcendental Numbers: e, pi

The French Mathematician and Physicist Joseph Fourier proved
e is irrational,

Another French mathematician Charles Hermite went further: e belongs to another mathematical world:
e is transcendental.

Hermite’s German student Lindermann followed the same method, proved:
pi is also transcendental.

100-digit Pi

One fine day when we reach above 80 years old, if the doctor accuses us of having dementia, then prove the doctor wrong by shocking him with 100-digit Pi memory 🙂

With Chinese single-syllable sound for numbers, better still if can sing it as a song, memorizing 100-digit pi is easy!


Transcendental Number

Transcendental numbers: e, Π, L…

What about e^{e},  \pi^{\pi} ,\pi^{e}  ?

Aleksander (Alexis) Osipovich Gelfond (1906-68):

Gelfond-Schneider Theorem

a^ b transcendental if
a is algebraic, not 0 or 1
b irrational algebraic number

\sqrt{6}^{\sqrt{5}},  3^{\sqrt{7}}
Hilbert Number: 2^{\sqrt {2}} (Hilbert Problem proven by Gelfond}

Is log 2 transcendental ?
[log = logarithm Base 10]

10^{log 2} = 2

1) Sufficient to prove log 2 irrational
Assume log 2 rational
log 2= p/q, p and q integers
10^ {log 2} = 2 = 10^ {p/q}
raise power q
2^{q} = 10^{p} = (2.5)^{p}
2^{q} = 2^{p}.5^{p}

Case 1: p>q
1 = 2^{p-q}.5^{p}
=> False

Case 2: q>p
2^{q-p}= 5^{p}
Left is even : 2^{m} \text { = even}
Right is odd: 5^{n} \text {= ....5}
=> False

Therefore p,q do not exist,
=> log 2 irrational

Reference: Top 15 Transcendental Numbers:

π in 1King 7:23

King Solomon – The Temple’s Furnishing:

He made the Sea of cast metal, circular in shape,
measuring 10 cubits from rim to rim and 5 cubits
high. It took a line of 30 cubits to measure around
it.” – 1King 7: 23

[10 cubits = 15 feet,  30 cubits = 45 feet]

So mathematically by today’s primary school geometry:

Circumference = 30 = 2 *π *r
Diameter = 10 = 2 * r

π = 30/10 = 3

Note: Solomon’s period is equivalent to China’s Zhou 周 dynasty of the famous Prince “Zhou Gong” 周公