Fourier Transformation in Data Science

Data Science =
Math (Fourier FFT) +
AI (Convoluted Neural Network) +
Big Data

丘城桐:基础数学和AI, Big Data

AI and Big Data are Twins, their Mother is Math.

“AI 3.0“ today, although impressive in “DeepLearning“, is still using “primitive” high school Math, namely:

AI has not taken advantage of the power of post-Modern Math invented since WW II, esp. IT related, ie :

That is the argument of the Harvard Math Dean Prof ST Yau 丘城桐 (First Chinese Fields Medalist), who predicts the future “AI 4.0“ can be smarter and more powerful.

… Current AI deals with Big Data:

  1. Purely Statistical approach and experience-oriented, not from Big Data’s inherent Mathematical structures (eg. Homology or Homotopy).
  2. The Data analytical result is environment specific, lacks portability to other environments.

3. Lack effective Algorithms, esp. Algebraic Topology computes Homology or Co-homology using Linear Algebra (Matrices).

4. Limited by Hardware Speed (eg. GPU), reduced to layered-structure problem solving approach. It is a simple math analysis, not the REAL Boltzmann Machine which finds the most Optimum solution.


AI 1.0 : 1950s by Alan Turing, MIT John McCarthy (coined the term “AI”, Lisp Language inventor).

AI 2.0 : 1970s/80s. “Rule-Based Expert Systems” using Fuzzy Logic.

[AI Winter : 1990s / 2000s. Failed ambitious Japanese “5th Generation Computer” based on Prolog-based “Predicate” Logic]

AI 3.0 : 2010s – now. “DeepLearning” by Prof Geoffry Hinton using primitive Math (Statistics, Probability, Calculus Gradient Descent)

AI 4.0 : Future. Using “Propositional Type” Logic, Topology (Homology, Homotopy) , Linear Algebra, Category.

Math for AI : Gradient Descent

Simplest explanation by Cheh Wu:

(4 Parts Video : auto-play after each part)

The Math Theory behind Gradient Descent: “Multi-Variable Calculus” invented by Augustin-Louis Cauchy (19 CE, France)

1. Revision: Dot Product of Vectors

2. Directional Derivative

3. Gradient Descent (opposite = Ascent)

Deeplearning with Gradient Descent:

In Math We Trust: Quantum Computing, AI and Blockchain – The Future of IT

In memory of Prof Zhang Shoucheng 张首晟教授 who passed away on 1 Dec 2018.

Key Points :

  1. Quantum Computing with “Angel Particle” (no anti-particle) : [Analogy] Complex Number (a + i.b) , ‘Anti’ = Conjugate = a – i.b, ‘No anti’ = Real number = a
  2. A. I. Natural Language Algorithm : “Word To Vector” eg. King / Queen (frequently appear together) , etc.
  3. Data Privacy and Big Data Analytics with A. I. : Homomorphic Encryption, ie reveal data but not privacy. (eg. Millionaire Problem)